2016年职称英语真题综合类A补全短文

时间:2016-03-28  来源:大考吧  

  2016年职称英语考试真题综合类A补全短文原文 (教材原文) Sauna

  Sauna

  Ceremonial bathing has existed for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. The Finns have perfected the steam bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually in an enclosed room, by pouring water over hot rocks or as dry heat bath. The Japanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms of the sweat bath in their bathing rituals. Dry heat and steam baths had advocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.

  The earliest saunas were probably underground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimney making was unknown at that time. a fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rock walls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the cave and the stones would retain heat for several hours. A few people today say that the smoke sauna, “svusauna”, is the only true sauna experience and that all saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke. Today most saunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.

  Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Those with muscle aches or arthritis may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain and inflammation. Asthma patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lung and facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may help to alleviate congestion and speed recovery time. The body‘s core temperature usually rises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever. The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting a cold in the first place.

  Sauna is goof for your skin as the blood flow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs of water per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime from pores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporary as the body‘s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes. The cardiovascular system gets work out as the heart must pump harder and faster to move blood to the surface for heat exchange. Heart rate may increase from 72 beats per minute on average to 100-150 beats per minute.

  A normal heart can handle these stresses but those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek a doctor‘s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with their doctor prior to beginning to take saunas. Pregnant women should not take saunas, particularly in the first three months. Indeed, everyone just starting out should take short sessions at first to become accustomed to this type of bath.

  桑 拿 浴

  仪式性的沐浴已经有几千年的历史,并且有多种形式,其中的一种就是桑拿浴。芬兰人完善了蒸汽浴。它可以在一个封闭的房间里将水浇在滚烫的石头上,或是一种干的蒸汽浴这一形式。用热蒸汽干蒸的方式在古罗马很受欢迎,而哥伦布发现美洲大陆前的美洲人则使用充满蒸汽的小屋。

  最早的桑拿浴很有可能是在地下山洞里。由于当时还没有掌握烟囱技术,山洞里总是充满着火焰引起的浓烟。人们在火槽里生火,加热山洞的四壁。当墙壁达到一定的温度时,将浓烟排出洞外,这使得墙壁还能保持几个小时的高温。今天,有一些人认为有烟的桑拿浴,“烟熏桑拿”,才是真正的桑拿体验,而所有的桑拿浴都应该至少有烟熏或烟味儿的背景。现在,尽管煤油炉和烧木头的火炉仍然可以使用,大多数的桑拿浴都是用电炉。

  桑拿浴能使人放松并消除压力。肌肉疼痛或关节炎都可以利用桑拿浴的热气减轻疼痛和炎症。热气还可以拓展哮喘患者的肺部通道,使呼吸更加顺畅。桑那浴并不能治愈普通的感冒,但它可以减轻患者的胸闷感,加快康复的速度。在蒸桑拿时,人体温度通常会上升1——2度,就像发低烧一样的感觉。因此,蒸桑拿可以说是印证了一句老话:“伤风时宜吃,发热时宜热。”定期蒸桑拿可以预防感冒的发生。

  蒸桑拿对皮肤也有好处。它可以促进皮肤的血液循环和出汗。在这个过程中,成年人一般每小时要蒸发2磅的水。出汗可以清除毛孔中的污垢,使皮肤变得光洁。失水只是暂时性的,人体机能能够很快补充合适的水量。在热气交换的过程中,心脏跳动得更快,这就使心血管系统也得到了锻炼,蒸桑拿浴时的心率能从原来的平均每分钟72下,增加到100——150下。

  健康的心脏可以承受这种变化,而那些心脏病患者在蒸桑拿浴之前应该先征求医生的建议。同样的,老年人和糖尿病患者也应如此。孕妇则不能蒸桑拿浴,尤其是怀孕的头三个月。其实,每个人在刚开始尝试桑拿浴时都应该先是短时间的,直到适应了这种沐浴方式。

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