2016职称英语卫生类a级补全短文真题及答案

时间:2016-04-08  来源:大考吧  

  第5部分:补全短文(第46——50题,每题2分,共10分)

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  Sauna

  Ceremonial (仪式性的) bathing hasexisted for thousands of years and has many forms, one of which is the sauna. TheFinns have perfected the steam bath, or sauna, which may be taken, usually inan enclosed room, by pouring water over hot rocks or as a dry heat bath. TheJapanese, Greeks, Turks and Russians as well as Native Americans have forms ofthe sweat bath in their bathing rituals. (46) Dry heat and steam baths hadadvocates in ancient Rome and pre-Columbian Americans used sweat lodges.

  The earliest saunas were probablyunderground caves heated by a fire that naturally filled with smoke as chimneymaking was unknown at that time. A fire kept in a fire-pit would heat the rockwalls of the cave. After reaching full heat, the smoke was let out of the caveand the stones would retain heat for several hours. A few people today saythat the smoke sauna, “savusauna”, is the only true sauna experience and thatall saunas should have at least a background odor or smoke. (47) Today mostsaunas use electric stoves, although gas and wood-burning stoves are available.

  Saunas are relaxing and stress relieving. Thosewith muscle aches or arthritis (关节炎) may find that the heat relaxes muscles and relieves pain andinflammation (炎症). Asthma (气喘) patients find that the heat enlarges air passageways of the lungand facilitates breathing. Saunas do not cure the common cold but they may helpto alleviate congestion (阻塞) arid speed recovery time. The body’s core temperature usuallyrises a 1-2 degrees while in the sauna, thus imitating a slight fever.(48)The sauna could be considered to follow the old saying “feed a cold, starvea fever”. The regular use of a sauna may decrease the likelihood of getting acold in the first place.

  Sauna is good for your skin as the bloodflow to the skin increases and sweating occurs. Adults sweat about 2 lbs ofwater per hour on average in a sauna. A good sweat removes dirt and grime frompores and gives the skin a healthy glow. The loss in water weight is temporaryas the body’s physiological mechanisms will quickly restore proper volumes. Thecardio vascular system gets a work out as the heart must pump harder and fasterto move blood to the surface for heat exchange. (49) Heart rate mayincrease from 72 beats per minute on average to 100-150 beats per minute.

  A normal heart can handle these stressesbut those with heart trouble wishing to begin to use a sauna should seek adoctor’s advice. The elderly and those with diabetes should check with theirdoctor prior to beginning to take saunas. Pregnant women should not takesaunas, particularly in the first three months. (50) Indeed, everyone juststarting out should take short sessions at first to become accustomed to thistype of bath.

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